quick step-by-step guidequick step-by-step guide

Are you doing an assignment or a dissertation? You must be needing referencing help in this context. No academic work is complete without proper in-text and end-text referencing. GPA Calculator UK measures the right citation as a top priority for marking criteria. There are diverse referencing styles. Commonly used referencing styles include Harvard, APA, MLA and Oscolo. Let us review APA for guidance. It is one of the popular referencing styles. APA stands for American Psychological Association. APA referencing style is authentic and recommended by various universities including Oxford and Harvard universities.

During campus studies, students may get counselling research topics. They help learn to search about the topic and align data. Referencing is taught as a specific lesson for guiding the students. They learn about it because they cannot explore research work without embedding citations (American Psychological Association, 2020). If a student is reviewing a specific research on the same topic by another student then it is important to refer to the other person’s work in the student’s work (Clauss-Ehlers et al., 2019).

Quick step-by-step guide

It is essential to review literature when a student starts academic writing. For this purpose, students may go through online content of literature from various reliable search engines (Azizah et al., 2021). Literature sources cannot be referenced unless student is aware of step by step referencing method. For this purpose, student needs to follow referencing learning both for in text and end text. Here, step by step explanation has been given for in text and end text referencing with APA. Let us go through a guide for understanding APA referencing style with examples. In the end, you will be able to apply it in a true sense with no errors.

Writing In-text Citation

Let us start with the in-text citation. It is easy and simple so it can be elaborated first. The rules for intext citation are as under:

  • Write the in-text citation within brackets. (author, year)
  • Mention the surname name of the author if there is only one author’s name for the study. (Author 1 surname, year)
  • Mention two authors surnames if there are two authors’ only for the study. Separate the author names by using ‘&’. (Author 1 surname & Author 2 surname, year)
  • Mention only the first and second authors’ surnames if there are more than two authors for that study. APA 7 in text citation multiple authors can be separated by showing author names using commas. Use writing ‘et al.,’ after writing surnames. Make sure it is in italics. (Author 1 surname, Author 2 surname, et al., year)
  • Mention the year of research at the end for in-text citation multiple authors APA 7th edition (Author 1 surname, Author 2 surname, et al., YEAR)
  • For more specifications, page numbers can be added but it is not compulsory. (Author 1 surname, Author 2 surname, et al., YEAR, p.11)


  • One author’s research (John, 2018)
  • Two authors’ research (John & Eric, 2018)
  • More than two authors’ research (John, Eric et al., 2018)
  • Mentioning page number if specific data is added (John, Eric et al., 2018. p. 13)

Writing End Text Citation

In-text citations can be cross-checked with end-text citations. For this purpose, proper citation APA process has been discussed here:

  • First of all, write down author surname first, then put a comma. Then write down the initial of first name of the author (Author Surname, Author first name initial)
  • If there are two authors. The author names can be separated by ‘&’ (Author 1 surname, Author 1 first name initial & Author 2 surname, Author 2 first name initial)
  • If there are more than two authors then the student may repeat the same practice for all (Author 1 surname, Author 1 first name initial, Author 2surname, Author 2 first name initial & so on )
  • Next step is to mention year of publication. It will be mentioned within brackets after author names (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year)
  • Then the title of the study will be copied exactly names (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year). Title of Study)
  • After that journal name will be added. It will be in italics in APA referencing. names (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year) Title of Study. Journal name)
  • The edition number will be added after the journal name (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year) Title of Study. Journal name, edition number)
  • Specific page numbers reviewed can be mentioned at the end (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year) Title of Study. Journal name, edition number, page number)
  • Last thing is Doi or link of the publication. It will be added at the end (Author Surname, Author first name initial (year) Title of Study. Journal name, edition number, page number. doi)


This can be further understood with the help of an example.

  • Research with one author (Vidal-Tomás, D., 2022. Which cryptocurrency data sources should scholars use? International Review of Financial Analysis81, p.102061. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057521922000369)
  • Research with two authors (Norcross, J. C., & Wampold, B. E. (2019). Relationships and responsiveness in the psychological treatment of trauma: The tragedy of the APA Clinical Practice Guideline. Psychotherapy56(3), 391. https://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pst/56/3/391/)
  • Research with three authors (Liu, Y., Tsyvinski, A., & Wu, X. (2022). Common risk factors in cryptocurrency. The Journal of Finance77(2), 1133-1177. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jofi.13119)
  • Research with multiple authors (Wątorek, M., Drożdż, S., Kwapień, J., Minati, L., Oświęcimka, P. & Stanuszek, M., (2021). Multiscale characteristics of the emerging global cryptocurrency market. Physics Reports901, pp.1-82. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370157320304166)

Concluding Remarks

The guide to APA is helpful to the students so they may explore their skills of referencing. It is recommended that the practice is a key to success. So, the students may practice more to polish APA referencing skills. More perfection will come with time. The guide ideas and examples can be explored in the guidance. It is good but one needs more polishing. Surely, citing it right will lead to secure high scores!


American Psychological Association, 2020. A concise guide to APA style: the official APA style guide for students. (No Title). https://cir.nii.ac.jp/crid/1130566853535378048

Azizah, N.N., Maryanti, R. and Nandiyanto, A.B.D., 2021. How to search and manage references with a specific referencing style using Google Scholar: From step-by-step processing for users to the practical examples in referencing education. Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research1(2), pp.267-294. https://ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/ijomr/article/view/37694

Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., Chiriboga, D. A., Hunter, S. J., Roysircar, G., and  Tummala-Narra, P. (2019). APA Multicultural Guidelines executive summary: Ecological approach to context, identity, and intersectionality. American Psychologist74(2), 232. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-07002-001


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One thought on “APA referencing style: A free, quick step-by-step guide”
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